Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Saul Cornell and Nathan DeDino, "A Well Regulated Right: The Early American Origins of Gun Control,", 2004

  2. Robert J. Spitzer, "Five Myths about Gun Control,", Dec. 21, 2012

  3. US Supreme Court, District of Columbia, et al. v. Heller,, October 2007

  4. CDC, "Data & Statistics (WISQARS)," (accessed July 12, 2017)

  5. David Frum, "Are Gun Accidents 'Very Rare'?,", Feb. 20, 2013

  6. P. Cummings, T.D. Koepsell, D.C. Grossman, J. Savarino, and R.S. Thompson, "The Association between the Purchase of a Handgun and Homicide or Suicide," American Journal of Public Health, June 1997

  7. Mark Follman and Gavin Aronsen, "'A Killing Machine': Half of All Mass Shooters Used High-Capacity Magazines,", Jan. 30, 2013

  8. Everytown for Gun Safety, "Analysis of Recent Mass Shootings,", July 2014

  9. Ali Winston, "High-Capacity Magazines Flood Oakland,", Jan. 16, 2013

  10. Arkadi Gerney and Chelsea Parsons, "Women under the Gun: How Gun Violence Affects Women and 4 Policy Solutions to Better Protect Them,", June 2014

  11. Mayors against Illegal Guns, "The Connection between Domestic Violence and Weak Gun Laws,", Feb. 27, 2013

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  13. D. Hemenway and E.G. Richardson, "Homicide, Suicide, and Unintentional Firearm Fatality: Comparing the United States with Other High-Income Countries, 2003," Journal of Trauma, 2011

  14. Everytown, "Guns and Violence against Women,", 2014

  15. Judith M. McFarlane, Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Susan Wilt, et al, "Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide," Homicide Studies,, 1999

  16. Michael Planty and Jennifer L. Truman, "Firearm Violence, 1993-2011,", May 2013

  17. Violence Policy Institute, "Firearm Justifiable Homicides and Non-Fatal Self-Defense Gun Use,", Apr. 2013

  18. Institute of Medicine, "Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence,", June 5, 2013

  19. Lynn Langton, "Firearms Stolen during Household Burglaries and Other Property Crimes, 2005-2010,", Nov. 2012

  20. Ian Ayres and John J. Donohue III, "Shooting Down the ‘More Guns, Less Crime' Hypothesis," Stanford Law Review,, Apr. 16, 2003

  21. Sarabeth A. Spitzer, Kristan L. Staudenmayer, Lakshika Tennakoon, David A. Spain, and Thomas G. Weiser, "Costs and Financial Burden of Initial Hospitalizations for Firearm Injuries in the United States, 2006–2014," American Journal of Public Health, Apr. 11, 2017

  22. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, "GSWcost2010," Jan. 14, 2015)

  23. Embry M. Howell and Peter Abraham, "The Hospital Costs of Firearm Assaults,", Sep. 2013

  24. Jillian Berman, "Taxpayers Shoulder Bulk of Gun Violence Health Care Costs: Study,", Sep. 13, 2013

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  26. Embry Howell, Sam Bieler, and Nathaniel Anderson, "State of Variation in Hospital Use and Cost of Firearm Assault Injury, 2010,", Aug. 2014

  27. Pew Research Center, "Gun Rights Proponents More Politically Active: In Gun Control Debate, Several Options Draw Major Support,", Jan. 14, 2013

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  31. Justin Briggs and Alexander Tabarrok, "Firearms and Suicides in US States," International Review of Law and Economics,, Mar 2014

  32. Katherine Hempstead and Antonio Rodriguez Andres, "Gun Control and Suicide: The Impact of State Firearm Regulations, 1995-2004,", Dec. 2009

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  36. Marjorie Sanfilippo, "Too Young Guns,", Feb. 6, 2014

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  39. Susan P. Baker, "Without Guns, Do People Kill People?," American Journal of Public Health, June 1985

  40. Arthur L. Kellermann, Frederick P. Rivara, Norman B. Rushforth, et al., "Gun Ownership as a Risk Factor for Homicide in the Home,", Oct. 7, 1993

  41. Mark Follman, "More Guns, More Mass Shootings—Coincidence?,", Dec. 15, 2012

  42. Mark Follman, "Do Armed Civilians Stop Mass Shooters? Actually, No.,", Dec. 19, 2012

  43. Jeffrey Voccola, "Why I Don't Want Guns in My Classroom,", Oct. 14, 2014

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  45. Small Arms Survey, "Small Arms Survey 2007,", 2007

  46. Lisa Hepburn and David Hemenway, "Firearm Availability and Homicide: A Review of the Literature," Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, 2004

  47. Michael Waldman, "How the NRA Rewrote the Second Amendment,", May 19, 2014

  48. Jon Stokes, "The AR-15 Is More Than a Gun. It's a Gadget,", Feb. 25, 2013

  49. Jill Lepore, "Battleground America,", Apr. 23, 2012

  50. Josh Richman, "Assault Weapons: What Are They, and Should They Be Banned?,", Jan. 18, 2013

  51. Heritage Foundation, "Protecting Second Amendment Rights,", 2014

  52. Lawrence Hunter, "Gun Control Tramples on the Certain Virtues of a Heavily Armed Citizenry,", Dec. 28, 2012

  53. Thomas Sowell, "The Great Gun Control Fallacy,", Dec. 18, 2012

  54. John R. Lott, Jr., "An Interview with John R. Lott, Jr. Author of More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws,", 1998

  55. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, "Growing Public Support for Gun Rights,", Dec. 10, 2014

  56. John Stossel, "Gun Control Isn't Crime Control,", Apr. 26, 2007

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  58. Pew Research Center, "Why Own a Gun? Protection Is Now Top Reason,", May 9, 2013

  59. Nelson Lund, "The Second Amendment and the Inalienable Right to Self-Defense,", Apr. 17, 2014

  60. Eugene Volokh, "State Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms Provisions,", 2006

  61. NRA-ILA, "Guarantees of the Right to Arms in State Constitutions,", July 3, 2014

  62. Washington Post Editorial Board, "The NRA's Simplistic Response to Newtown: 'Good Guy with a Gun,'", Dec. 21, 2012

  63. James Wright and Peter Rossi, "Armed Criminals in America: A Survey of Incarcerated Felons, 1983,", 1985

  64. Daniel Strauss, "Sen. Feinstein No Longer Has Concealed Weapon Permit,", Dec. 20, 2012

  65. US Fish and Wildlife Service, "National Survey – 2011 Survey,", 2011

  66. US Fish and Wildlife Service, "2011 National Survey of Fishing Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation,", Feb. 2014

  67. NRA, "Ten Myths about Gun Control,", Oct. 1994

  68. National Shooting Sports Foundation, "Background Information on So-Called 'Assault-Weapons,'", 2011

  69. Mark Follman, Gavin Aronsen, and Deanna Pan, "A Guide to Mass Shootings in America,", May 24, 2014

  70. John R. Lott, Jr., "Gun Control Misfires in Europe," Wall Street Journal,, May 4, 2002

  71. Chicago Tribune, "Chicago Shooting Victims,", Feb. 10, 2015

  72. Tanveer Ali, "Though Chicago Murders Are Down, 'Gang Culture' Remains an Issue: Top Cop,", Dec. 29, 2014

  73. Chicago Tribune, "Chicago Shooting Victims,", Mar. 22, 2015

  74. Kevin Quealy and Tim Wallace, "Where 50,000 Guns Recovered in Chicago Came From,", Jan, 29, 2013

  75. David Welna, "Some Gun Control Opponents Cite Fear of Government Tyranny," www.npr.prg, Apr. 8, 2013

  76. CNN, "Piers Morgan Debates Alex Jones,", Jan. 7, 2013

  77. Amber Phillips, "Despite Harry Reid's Growing Support, Gun Control Legislation Probably Isn't Going Anywhere in Congress,", June 11, 2014

  78. Vince Coglianese, "EXCLUSIVE: ACLU Says Reid's Gun Legislation Could Threaten Privacy Rights, Civil Liberties,", Apr. 4, 2013

  79. NRA-ILA, "Micro-Stamping & Ballistic 'Fingerprinting,'" (accessed June 12, 2015)

  80. Rand Paul, Mike Lee, and Ted Cruz, "Sens. Paul, Lee, and Cruz Join Together to Protect Second Amendment,", Mar. 26, 2013

  81. Jim Barrett, "Mythbusting: We'd Have Fewer Suicides with More Gun Control,", Oct. 11, 2013

  82. Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Inc, "Decades of Success in Reducing Firearms Accidents,", 2003

  83. Claire Moore, "To Teach or Not to Teach Gun Safety in School," (accessed Feb. 11, 2015)

  84. NRA, "Eddie Eagle," (accessed Feb. 11, 2015)

  85. Kyle Wintersteen, "10 Need-to-Know Gun Control Myths,", May 1, 2013

  86. Libertarian Party, "Gun Laws: Why Libertarians Support Equal Rights for America's Gun Owners," (accessed Feb. 13, 2015)

  87. James J. Featherstone, Richard E. Gardiner, and Robert Dowlut, "The Second Amendment of the United States Constitution Guarantees and Individual Right to Keep and Bear Arms,", 1982

  88. Simon Rogers, "Gun Homicides and Gun Ownership Listed by Country,", July, 22, 2012

  89. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "Global Study on Homicide," (accessed Oct. 30, 2014)

  90. Damien Cave, "At a Nation's Only Gun Shop, Looking North in Disbelief,", July 24, 2012

  91. ATF, "Report of Active Firearms Licenses - License Type by State Statistics,", Feb. 10, 2015

  92. William Booth, "In Mexico, Only One Gun Store but No Dearth of Violence,", Dec. 29, 2010

  93. John Burnett, "Law-Abiding Mexicans Taking up Illegal Guns,", Jan. 28, 2012

  94. Claire Gordon, "Gun Control Debate amongst African-Americans Involves Complicated History,", Mar. 18, 2013

  95. Michael L. Betsch, "Blacks Allegedly Victimized by 'Racist' Gun Control Laws,", July 7, 2008

  96. John Blake, "Does Race Shape Americans' Passion for Guns?,", Oct. 10, 2014

  97. Barbara Chai, "Love Your Gun? Thank the Black Panthers, Says New Book,", Sep. 21, 2011

  98. Clayton E. Cramer, "The Racist Roots of Gun Control,", 1993

  99. Cornell University Law School, "10 U.S. Code § 246 - Militia: Composition and Classes," (accessed Aug. 7, 2017)

  100. Daniel J. Schultz, "The Second Amendment: The Framers' Intentions," (accessed June 16, 2015)

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  102. David Lampo, "Gun Control: Myths and Realities,", May 13, 2000

  103. Mark Gius, "An Examination of the Effects of Concealed Weapons Laws and Assault Weapons Bans on State-Level Murder Rates," Applied Economics Letters,, Nov. 26, 2013

  104. Stav Ziv, "U.S. Gun Ownership Declines,", Mar. 10, 2015

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  108. Adam Winkler, "Did the Wild West Have More Gun Control Than We Do Today?,", Sep. 9, 2011

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  115. Steven Rosenfeld, "The NRA Once Supported Gun Control,", Jan. 14, 2013

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  130. Christine Jamieson, "Gun Violence Research: History of the Federal Funding Freeze,", Feb. 2013

  131. Michael Luo, "N.R.A. Stymies Firearms Research, Scientists Say,", Jan. 25, 2011

  132. Josh Harkinson, "Does the NRA Really Have 4 Million Members?,", Jan. 14, 2013

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  140. Mark Follman, Gavin Aronsen, Deanna Pan, and Maggie Caldwell, "US Mass Shootings, 1982-2012: Data from Mother Jones' Investigation,", Dec. 28, 2012

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  142. The White House, "FACT SHEET: New Executive Actions to Reduce Gun Violence and Make Our Communities Safer,", Jan. 4, 2015

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  144. Sam Stein, "The Congressman Who Restricted Gun Violence Research Has Regrets,", Oct. 6, 2015

  145. Richard Gonzales, "Federal Appeals Court Says There Is No Right to Carry Concealed Weapons in Public,", June 9, 2016

  146. Adam Nagourney and Erik Eckholm, "2nd Amendment Does Not Guarantee Right to Carry Concealed Guns, Court Rules,", June 9, 2016

  147. Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway, "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-Income OECD Countries, 2010,", Mar. 2016

  148. Bindu Kalesan, Matthew E. Mobily, Olivia Keiser, Jeffrey A. Fagan, and Sandro Galea, "Firearm Legislation and Firearm Mortality in the USA: A Cross-Sectional, State-Level Study,", Mar. 10, 2016
    *A 2016 RAND report, written by Terry L. Schell and Andrew R. Morral, "Evaluating Methods and Findings from a Study of State Gun Policies," critiqued this study, but Lancet left it up without comment.

  149. Ines de la Cuetara, "Marco Rubio Goes All-in on Guns Following Debate,", Jan. 17, 2016

  150. Melissa Jeltsen, "Supreme Court Affirms That Even 'Reckless' Domestic Abusers Should Lose Gun Rights,", June 27, 2016

  151. Supreme Court of the United States, Voisine v. United States,, June 27, 2016

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  153. Brent Kendall, "Supreme Court Declines to Ease Gun Access for Misdemeanor Domestic Violence Offenders,", June 27, 2016

  154. Kim Parker, Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Ruth Igielink, et al., "America’s Complex Relationship With Guns,", June 22, 2017

  155. Quinnipiac University, "February 20, 2018 - U.S. Support for Gun Control Tops 2-1, Highest Ever, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Let Dreamers Stay, 80 Percent of Voters Say,", Feb. 20, 2018

  156. Pete Williams, "Supreme Court Won't Hear Challenge to California Gun Waiting Period,", Feb. 20, 2018

  157. Joseph Blocher and Eric Ruben, "The Second Amendment Allows for More Gun Control Than You Think,", May 23, 2018

  158. Martin Kaste, "Gun Studies: Permit Laws Reduce Murders; Red Flag Laws Cut Suicides,", June 4, 2018

  159. Aaron J. Kivisto and Peter Lee Phalen, "Effects of Risk-Based Firearm Seizure Laws in Connecticut and Indiana on Suicide Rates 1981-2015,", June 1, 2018

  160. Cassandra Crifasi, et al., "Association between Firearm Laws and Homicide in Urban Counties,", May 21, 2018

  161. Ryan Lucas, "Justice Department Bans Bump Stocks, Devices Used in Deadly Las Vegas Shooting,", Dec. 18, 2018

  162. CDC, WISQARS Database, (accessed July 17, 2018)

  163. Faiz Gani, Joseph V. Sakran, and Joseph K. Canner, "Emergency Department Visits for Firearm-Related Injuries in the United States, 2006–14," Health Affairs, Oct. 2017

  164. Maggie Fox, "State-by-State Study Links Gun Ownership with Youth Suicide,”, Jan. 17, 2019


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